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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 18  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 15-19

Risk factors for falls in older adults with cognitive impairment

1 Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi, India
2 Consultant Geriatrician, Department of Geriatric Medicine, Kauvery Hospital, Chennai, Tamil Nadu, India

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Aparajit Ballav Dey
Department of Geriatric Medicine, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, Ansari Nagar, New Delhi - 110 029
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/jiag.jiag_4_22

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Background: Falls are one of the leading causes of disability among older people. The risk factors of falls widely vary among the older populations, including the different stages of cognitive impairment. We aim to identify the risk factors for falls among cognitively impaired older adults. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional study, older adults attending the memory clinic were screened for falls and their risk factors. A total of 112 subjects who satisfied the inclusion criteria and provided informed consent were subjected to a semi-structured interview and comprehensive geriatric assessment. Cognitive impairment was graded by the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR). Subjects were divided into fallers and nonfallers. A multivariable logistic regression analysis was done to identify the independent risk factors of falls. Results: The prevalence of falls was 39.28% in the study population. Gender (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] [95% confidence interval (CI)]: 2.21 [0.690–7.117]), body mass index (aOR [95% CI]: 0.89 [0.773–1.028]), socioeconomic status (middle-class aOR [95% CI]: 0.34 [0.077–1.526], lower-class aOR [95% CI]: 2.44 [0.349–17.160]), multimorbidity (aOR [95% CI]: 19.39 [1.043–360.373]), depression (mild aOR [95% CI]: 2.90 [0.896–9.429] and moderate aOR [95% CI]: 4.77 [0.967–23.597]), and impairment in hobbies and home (aOR [95% CI]: 24.78 [6.251–98.294]) part of CDR were the independent predictors of falls. Conclusion: Older adults with cognitive impairment are at high risk of falling with definitive risk factors. Regular screening will help to identify older adults at risk of falls and enable fall prevention to reduce morbidity and dependency.

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